Tag Archive: Peristiwa 65


STATE OBLIGATION TO RESOLVE PAST HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES: AN OVERVIEW OF THE CASE OF THE 1965-1966 EVENTS IN INDONESIA[1]

By: Manunggal K. Wardaya[2]

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  1. Introduction

Kuman Di Seberang Lautan Tampak, Gajah di Pelupuk Mata Tak Tampak (able to see a germ even across the sea, unable to see an elephant even in the eyelids) is an Indonesian proverb which describes someone who was unaware about things in his or her surroundings, yet very much concerned about other party’s affair however small it was. The aforementioned maxim really fit to describe the nescience of the vast majority of Indonesians over a dark page in the history of their own country. The racial extermination against the Jews in many parts of Europe during World War II might be a knowledge that has been widely known to many Indonesians particularly because the tragedy has long been a subject taught in schools. This, ironically, is not the case with the appalling killings of an estimated five hundred thousand or more suspected-leftists and or leftist sympathizers in Indonesia during the six months of October 1965 to March 1966.[3]

Even up to the writing of this paper,  the killings never became part of the formal history of the nation despite being reported as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th Century.[4] The massacres were known only to limited people of younger generation at least until the screening of The Act of Killing (TAoK) when they began to receive unprecedented massive attention from both the national and international communities.[5]

This paper will be discussing about a humanitarian tragedy that occurred in the Indonesia in the mid-1960’s popularly known as the 1965-1966 Events. The paper will not only be explaining about the events which caused so many casualties among Indonesian people,  but more importantly  things that have been done by the Indonesian government to settle the case.  In addition, the paper will propose strategies that can be done to push and or speed up the settlement of the case which in turn will expectedly bring justice to the victims of the events and or their families.

  1. The 1965-1966 Events: A Brief Description

TAoK, a title of the movie being discussed in the introductory section above, is not a usual film where the actors interactively play their roles as written down in the scenario. Anwar Congo, the central figure of the movie just had to act as himself and do precisely what he did toward anyone deemed  to be member and or sympathizer of the Partai Komunis Indonesia (Indonesian Communist Party, PKI) decades before its premiere at Toronto Film Festival in 2012.[6] Instead of showing remorse for what he did, Anwar proudly demonstrated various methods in executing his victims ranging from stabbing with a knife to strangling with stiff wire. Anwar was only one of thousands of anti-communist people who took part in the violence and his cruelty as depicted in TAoK was just a tiny fragment of an immense tragedy that struck Indonesia back in the mid-1960’s. Just as Anwar in North Sumatera, many people across the country at that time became extremely mad at the PKI after hearing the brutal murder of six top generals and a lieutenant in Jakarta and the rumour that put the party as the main suspect. Accusations held that the assassinations were carried out as part of a coup attempt to change the official State ideology from Pancasila to Communism and that the PKI were preparing to eliminate their political adversaries precisely as they did to the generals.[7] Although affiliation with the PKI was at that time lawful, the allegations that the party had committed inhumane acts against prominent figures in the Army had fuelled the anger of the masses who then vented their hatred toward anyone identified and or perceived to be members of the PKI.  Continue reading

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INTERNATIONAL PEOPLE’S TRIBUNAL 1965  DAN TANGGUNG JAWAB NEGARA DALAM PENYELESAIAN PELANGGARAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA BERAT PERISTIWA 1965-1966[1]

                                                                                  Oleh :

Manunggal  K. Wardaya[2]

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  1. Pendahuluan

20 Juli 2016 menjadi tanggal yang teramat berarti bagi keluarga korban para penyintas pelanggaran hak asasi manusia (HAM) berat Peristiwa 1965-1966.[3] Pada hari itu, hasil putusan  International People’s Tribunal (Pengadilan Rakyat Internasional) 1965 (selanjutnya disebut IPT 65) dibacakan di Cape Town, Afrika Selatan.[4] Hakim Zakeria Mohammed Yakoob menyatakan pemerintah Republik Indonesia bertanggungjawab atas serangkaian pelanggaran HAM berat yang terjadi di berbagai daerah di Indonesia menyusul pembunuhan enam jenderal dan satu perwira Angkatan Darat di Jakarta pada malam 30 September hingga 1 Oktober 1965. 10 pelanggaran HAM yang disebutkan dalam putusan IPT 65 antara lain pembunuhan masal, pemusnahan, pemenjaraan, perbudakan, penyiksaan, penghilangan paksa, kekerasan seksual,  pengasingan, propaganda palsu, keterlibatan negara lain, hingga genosida.[5] Disebutkan bahwa semua kejahatan di atas dilakukan kepada rakyat Indonesia secara diam-diam, sistematis tapi meluas, elemen kejahatan yang dikenal secara universal sebagai kejahatan HAM paling serius (most serious crimes).[6]  Atas pelanggaran HAM berat tersebut, IPT 65 merekomendasikan Pemerintah Indonesia untuk meminta maaf kepada korban dan penyintas serta mengadili mereka yang bertanggungjawab atas Peristiwa 1965-1966. Continue reading